An erratum refers to a correction of errors introduced to the article by the journal in editing or production.
All Journal introduced changes are highlighted to the author at the proof stage and any errors are ideally identified by the author and corrected by the publisher before final publication.
Corrigenda submitted by the original authors are published if the scientific accuracy or reproducibility of the original paper is compromised. A corrigendum refers to a change to their article that the author wishes to publish at any time after acceptance. Authors should contact the editor of the journal, who will determine the impact of the change and decide on the appropriate course of action.
A Retraction is a notice that the paper should not be regarded as part of the scientific literature. Retractions are issued if there is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, this can be as a result of misconduct or honest error. Retraction takes place if:
If the work reports unethical research.